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    Home Education

    Physical Ideals, Charlotte Mason, and Orthodontia

    April 4, 2016 by Brandy Vencel

    [dropcap]C[/dropcap]harlotte Mason should be glad that my husband wasn’t her editor. He’s my editor for Newbie Tuesday, and I’ll tell you right now that he’d never allow some of the passing comments she’s included in her chapters. They seemingly come out of nowhere, and when I do that, I get in trouble. That thought isn’t connected to any of the previous thoughts in the whole article, he says.

    He’s right, you know.

    Miss Mason encouraged us to have a physical ideal in mind for our children in the same way that we have ideals for other areas of their lives.

    And yet.

    I’m still glad we have these little snippets from her. Some of them seem strange and antiquated. Some of them say things we aren’t supposed to say in this politically correct world of ours. And some of them pack a punch and let on that this woman knew so much that even though she wrote thousands of pages, she was still holding back on us.

    Take this bit as an example, nestled at the end of her commentary on country air in Home Education:

    There was a charming picture in Punch some time ago, of two little boys airing their English-French on their mother’s new maid; two noble little fellows, each straight as a dart, with no superfluous flesh, eyes well opened, head erect, chest expanded, the whole body full of spring even in repose. It was worth looking at, if only as suggesting the sort of physique we delight to see in a child. No doubt the child inherits the most that he is in this respect as in all others; but this is what bringing-up may, with some limitations, effect: — The child is born with certain natural tendencies, and, according to his bringing-up, each such tendency may run into a blemish of person or character, or into a cognate grace. Therefore, it is worth while to have even a physical ideal for one’s child; not, for instance, to be run away with by the notion that a fat child is necessarily a fine child. The fat child can easily be produced: but the bright eyes, the open regard, the springing step; the tones, clear as a bell; the agile, graceful movements that characterise the well-brought-up child, are the result, not of bodily well being only, but of ‘mind and soul according well,’ of a quick, trained intelligence, and of a moral nature habituated to the ‘joy of self control.’

    To me this begged the question of whether we’ve ever envisioned a physical ideal for our children — or for each individual child in our families. Have you? I know that, for me, it’s very tempting to emphasize the spiritual and the intellectual over and above the physical — to forget that they are embodied souls.

    We’ve had our share of health issues over the years, as many of you know. And health issues seem really common these days. When we first had things pop up, it felt like we were all alone, but now I often meet people with the same challenges we’ve had — it’s almost normal, except that we all remember our own growing up well enough to know that it’s not.

    Normal, I mean.

    These days, we’re not supposed to hold up a physical ideal for our children, while at the same time, we’re encouraged to help them “be healthy” — a really hard thing to do without a clear vision of an ideal. But still, there is the whole body image/body shaming thing. If you say something like “no excess flesh” like Charlotte did {and, mind you, I’m saying this as a person who has her share of the excess!}, you’re said to be setting your child up for an eating disorder or some other psychological disorder.

    But still.

    We can’t ignore that these ideals still ring true: good posture, trim, alert and shining eyes, head up, breathing well, with energy in spades. We know it, and then a lot of us see our scrawny {or overweight}, pale children struggling to breathe through their noses and coughing from exertion, breaking out in rashes from eating what should be innocuous foods, and we wonder.

    Where in the world did we go wrong?

    Well, that’s a whole issue I won’t get into, though my friend laughingly told us at book group, after we discussed this exact quote, that Hal Huggins once wrote a book called Why Raise Ugly Kids? {which she lent to me and I am now reading} that has a physical ideal spelled out, along with some strategies for moving in the right direction. His book focuses a lot on orthodontic issues.

    Which is something I’ve been thinking about a lot lately.

    Now, I know you’re wondering how we got here, but stick with me. Instead of thinking of the physical ideal for the whole child, let’s just think about the dental part of the child for a moment. My children were born with extremely crowded teeth — so much so that they had crooked baby teeth. Two of them also struggled with cavities.

    I had read enough about teeth to know that this was not the ideal. We all know cavities aren’t the ideal, but I mean the crowding — and I don’t mean for aesthetic reasons {though aesthetics are important}. I knew the super crowded teeth meant higher chances of sinus infections, environmental allergies, snoring, and even sleep apnea. I also knew that braces could only fix the aesthetics — they didn’t actually solve the underlying problem of too-small bones.

    So I did a ton of research. I discovered there was an orthopedic, bone-stretching type of approach to orthodontics, and then I went on a mission to figure out if I could afford it. We were in luck: it was way cheaper than braces, at least in our neck of the woods.

    When I went to one of the early appointments with our orthodontist, I wasn’t sure what to expect. After all, most of his business consisted in braces work, and my goal was for our children to avoid braces. I was very honest with him — I told him what I’d read. And then I said, “Their teeth don’t have to be beautiful. We’re not doing this for aesthetics. We’re doing this because we’re concerned for their long-term health.”

    The doctor’s response floored me. “You don’t understand aesthetics, then. The aesthetics are the sign of health. When the bones are right and the teeth fit, the face just is more beautiful.”

    All of these memories came back to me during our book group discussion. Miss Mason was encouraging us to have a physical ideal in the same way that we have ideals for other areas of their lives — intellectual, spiritual, etc. And when a child embodies that physical ideal, he’s pleasant to look at — but that’s not the point.

    The pleasantness is simply the sign of good health — the good form is the sign of good function.

    And when that good health is coupled with what Miss Mason mentions — agile movements and a joyous self-control — it’s a beautiful thing.

    Fast forward many years and our oldest child is the poster boy for orthodontics. His bones stretched and grew so nicely after all these years that he may just have room for his wisdom teeth, which is sort of unheard of.

    And I feel like I’ve learned that it’s worth it to aim for a physical ideal, even though our children will never fully attain it. One of my desires was to take burdens off their future families — to present them to their future spouses in as good a condition as possible so that they might be fit for service, rather than in need of care.

    Of course, life doesn’t always work out that way.

    But even in light of that fact, I still think Charlotte Mason was on to something.

     

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    40 Comments

  • Reply Bek April 9, 2016 at 3:01 pm

    Oops just read down to the other comments and found many others made the connection to Price.
    Another great book that references him is Nourishing Traditions by Sally Fallon where she provides lots of traditional recipes and little snippets of research from Price and others.

  • Reply Bek April 9, 2016 at 2:52 pm

    Very interesting Brandy….sounds similar to Weston Price’s research and the growing interest in orthotropics….but in my research is more expensive.
    What is the approach you’ve used called?

  • Reply Shannon April 7, 2016 at 7:55 am

    My wife has such a bad overbite that to be corrected they would have to break her jaws and “adjust” her upper and lower bones to correct it. It was something her parent’s couldn’t fix when she was a child–but I love her so much and (honestly!) I really don’t even notice it. She occasionally mentions doing the surgery, but I think the surgery and having her jaws wired shut for around six months scares her.

    • Reply Brandy Vencel April 7, 2016 at 9:23 am

      Oh my goodness! That sounds so painful! We had a relative whose jaw was broken and had to be wired for many months, and it was very difficult to keep him properly nourished during that time. 🙁

  • Reply Hollie April 6, 2016 at 7:56 pm

    Katy Bowman talked about kids not having room for teeth and needing braces and such in one of her recent podcasts. I’m thinking the one on bones but I’m not 100% sure. It was fascinating!

    • Reply Brandy Vencel April 7, 2016 at 6:39 am

      Ooh! I need to go listen. I haven’t been listening to hers as much lately and it actually crossed my mind that maybe she’d said something about this before… Thanks, Hollie!

  • Reply Amber Vanderpol April 4, 2016 at 7:23 pm

    Oh my goodness, this is fascinating! So much to learn about!! (And so little time…) Why oh why does it always seem like the best ways forward are the ones few people know about? And that require so much reading and searching?

    I have one child who had a expansion appliance and other orthodontia at 8 (so that she wouldn’t have to have adult teeth pulled – which worked, she had room for all her adult teeth but the wisdom teeth) , another with orthodontia at 9 because of an overbite, and now both have retainers. My older child has a retainer that she’s supposed to wear for the rest of her life (!!) which just doesn’t seem realistic to me. The second child is supposed to have another course of braces once all his permanent teeth come in. We opted not to do the second course for our oldest as it would have just been some cosmetic additional straightening and it didn’t seem worth the hassle or expense. And then there’s still three more children to go… Eek!!!

    Thanks for this post, I really appreciate it!

  • Reply Tara April 4, 2016 at 1:36 pm

    If you go to this page and see the heading “Alternatives to Conventional Orthodontics,” there is a list of articles Sarah wrote about her daughter’s experience with an orthodontic device to expand her palate, and she also discusses some of the reasons why she chose this alternative to conventional braces for her daughter. http://nourishedandnurtured.blogspot.com/p/health-nutrition-and-homeopathy.html
    It’s much more about overall health, now and in the future, and it seems that braces simply can’t address all of those concerns (and even what it does accomplish doesn’t last, in terms of the teeth shifting over time).

    I’ve recently been getting some cranial work done for myself, and I had my young child checked about a week ago as well. After one session (which took maybe a few minutes), I can see that my child’s jaw/teeth are better aligned, the bite is better, and he can keep his mouth closed for a while. So that might be one other thing to look into. The cranial bones are pretty significant, and the very gentle cranial work can have big impact.

  • Reply Julie Z April 4, 2016 at 1:24 pm

    I called Ortho-Tain today to get a list of doctors in St. Louis where I live. I was the 2nd person who had called because of a blog post! They asked for your blog and said they may be contacting you to thank you for your good review! This is exactly what I needed, and I didn’t even know it…thank you, thank you! We have an appt with a dentist on Monday who uses their products.

  • Reply Laurie Hawley April 4, 2016 at 1:04 pm

    Thanks for sharing this. My kids have crowding and misaligned bites. I am definitely looking into this. I just filled out the contact form for more information and a list of dentists in my area on the Ortho Tain website.

  • Reply Sharron April 4, 2016 at 8:03 am

    This is such food for thought! Your motives of health for your children! I never would have had such forward thoughts. I’m curious about your not wanting them to have braces. Was it because of the expense or some other reason? I have a couple of reasons myself besides cost, but not sure if they are legit or not. Will definitely be pondering this more.

    • Reply Brandy Vencel April 4, 2016 at 8:54 am

      Well, admittedly it all started with the expense. When I found out what it cost, I felt like I was going to have to choose which children got them, and which ones didn’t, which hardly seemed fair since they ALL had orthodontic problems that were pretty severe. But when I started to do research, I learned that kids with teeth as crowded as my kids’ teeth were end up with teeth removed in order to make room for the teeth — and the result can be all sorts of issues in adulthood, but my biggest concern was sleep apnea.

      My older daughter needed a minimum of 11mm of growth for her adult teeth to fit. That is a LOT — much more than a palate expander can do. A few months in, she’d already gained a number of mm, and at that time, her palate dropped down and as a result, her ear/sinus issues, environmental allergies, and snoring all went away! I told this to the orthodontist and he said that, yes, that happens because all of those problems can be due to the fact that the sinuses don’t have enough room to function properly.

      That’s an illustration. My thought is that if the bone is structured correctly, the teeth will fit, and if the teeth don’t fit, the problem is the bone, not the teeth, so we were looking for a solution that addressed the bone structure rather than the teeth, if that makes sense.

      • Reply Sharron April 4, 2016 at 1:14 pm

        Fascinating!! Especially the allergy part! One of my concerns is how people who have had braces talk about how their teeth didn’t stay straight into adulthood or adults who now have tmj, etc. Then there’s the expense! Ouch!

  • Reply Herbwifemama April 4, 2016 at 7:56 am

    Oh, yes! Way to go on another wonderful article! I have that physical ideal for my children- I want them to be like CM described, bright eyes, rosy cheeks, an energetic, but not wild manner about them. It reminds me of the change in Mary in the Secret Garden. I read that book as Frances H. Burnett’s prescription for healthy children. Let them run out on the moors all day long in the fresh air, learning the animals and loving them, and eating wholesome food. None of that mentions body size, and I do think there are a range of healthy body types. I think focusing on health rather than body size is a good thing, it’s important to develop healthy habits. And when you eat right most of the time, get plenty of fresh air and exercise, enough sleep, practice good hygiene, then for the most part your body will be the size it was meant to be. (Not so for us mothers who have hormonal issues, it’s trickier, but the underlying foundation still applies.) I have one average sized kid, and one well, scrawny is a good word for it, And her teeth are crowded, she is quite small for her age, and we are looking at orthodontists for her this summer. So your post is so timely! Thank you for sharing what you found wrt orthodontia! I will be looking into it!

    • Reply Brandy Vencel April 4, 2016 at 8:57 am

      I like what you said here about body size!

      I have a question about your child with crowded teeth — how does she sleep at night? On her side? On her face? In Huggins book, he ties a lot of the issues to sleep position (because the facial bones are very soft), so I’m doing my own research now by asking. 🙂 I’d be especially curious if your other child doesn’t need braces, and DOES sleep on his or her back. That would be interesting because they have the same genetics and eat the same foods. In my case, my children ALL sleep other than on their backs, so I don’t have a control group. 😉

      • Reply Herbwifemama May 12, 2016 at 8:36 pm

        She has a loft bed, that I am too short to really see into, but when I do see her sleep, it’s not on her back. The younger girl sometimes sleeps on her back. Half the time or less, I’d say. She is a thumb sucker with a slight open bite. I’m wondering if the ortho-tain would help her too.

        I believe that my older daughter is so small partially because that’s her genetics, but also because she’s always been a very picky eater. She eats like a bird! I joke that she’s like an air plant. So, I believe that she’s malnourished, despite my best efforts. She’s 10, and she looks like an 8yo, and that’s why I think her teeth are crowded, is just that her skeleton hasn’t been able to grow to where it’s supposed to be. Now, why she is a picky eater? I haven’t figured that out yet. I am gearing up to put the whole family on the GAPS diet and see if that helps at all.

        • Reply Brandy Vencel May 12, 2016 at 8:54 pm

          Interesting! My husband (he’s a holistic nutritionist) finds that a lot of picky eaters are zinc deficient. Sometimes both zinc and B6. Have you ever tried a zinc challenge test? Basically, people deficient in zinc cannot taste zinc, or even think it tastes good. I described it in #3 here a few years ago, if you want more information.

          We have found that our pickiest eater does *much* better with zinc supplementation, but she is still quite picky. ♥

          • Herbwifemama May 12, 2016 at 9:00 pm

            I have not heard that! I will look into it. 🙂

      • Reply Herbwifemama October 12, 2016 at 6:30 pm

        I came back to reread this post as we have our first orthodontist appt tomorrow. I’m trying to gather my thoughts to explain to the orthodontist what I want. You asked about how she sleeps- she sleeps primarily on her back, and she uses three pillows because otherwise her nose gets stuffy and she can’t breathe. I’m hoping palate expanding will help with this!

        • Reply Tara October 17, 2016 at 9:23 pm

          You might also want to look into Buteyko breathing method.

  • Reply Kansas Mom April 4, 2016 at 6:52 am

    It’s interesting you mention the idea of bone-stretching as unusual. It’s standard practice in our area and every pediatric dentist recommends seeing an orthodontist around age 8. My nieces in Illinois and Wisconsin have also had the same kind of work done.

    • Reply Brandy Vencel April 4, 2016 at 6:59 am

      Palate expanders are somewhat common here, but the full bone-stretching where no braces are needed is very uncommon and there is only one dentist doing it for the half million people living in our area! I was so glad to find anything in our area, to be honest. My husband called every orthodontist in town! 🙂

      • Reply Tara April 7, 2016 at 9:12 am

        Brandy, what is the difference between palate expanders and full bone-stretching? I guess I thought the palate expander helps all the bones in that area to develop better.

        • Reply Brandy Vencel April 7, 2016 at 9:22 am

          Tara, I am trying to remember the conversation we had with our orthodontist a number of years ago, so this might not be quite right, but I believe he said that there are two main differences. (1) Palate expanders only expand side to side rather than all around the circumference of the bones and (2) there are limits on how many milimeters can be gained — I think he might have said 4mm, but that could be totally wrong. I’m sure that in the world of palate expanders there is also a lot of variation, but that is the gist of what I remember him saying.

          • Tara April 7, 2016 at 9:33 am

            Interesting. Yes, it does seem there is alot of variation – there are wire contraptions and plastic devices, and I’m not sure if they all do the same thing. It sounds like you’re saying that the Orthotain is a full bone-stretching option, not just a palate expander, right? And is the Orthotain the only one that does that?

  • Reply Sandy April 4, 2016 at 5:24 am

    So I’m curious if you used traditional orthodontia or the technique you linked to in the post?
    Our oldest daughter just finished with traditional orthodontia that included a palate expander. I couldn’t be more pleased. I am just floored at the before and after difference in the structure of her mouth. Her whole face is broader … and more beautiful!

    • Reply Brandy Vencel April 4, 2016 at 6:54 am

      Sandy, we used the technique I linked in the post — no traditional orthodontia. Aren’t palate expanders wonderful? The difference is amazing!

  • Reply Lori in Wheaton April 4, 2016 at 4:39 am

    I also have Why Raise Ugly Kids! Nice to know it is still making its way around various circles. Thanks for the link to the orthodontics, and the affirmation that it works! We’re currently using an expander for the same reason, but I like yours much better.
    I would strongly recommend you Google the book Mouth Matters and read her blog. It is VERY educational. I would also check into myofascial therapy; Mercola has a good interview about it. Very worth your time. I think Huggins’ book dovetails well into it. All of my (8) kids needed it and it was far too expensive for us to afford, so I wound up buying Barb Greene’s training videos, teaching myself how to do it, and then teaching all my kids. It’s critical to maintain any orthodontic gains — or, at least, keeping your mouth closed, your tongue up in the right place, and chewing and swallowing correctly. Those forces, if not performed correctly, will completely misalign teeth over time. (I was skeptical and called several orthodontists and discreetly inquired about those forces’ ability to change teeth, and every one agreed those forces are far stronger than braces and will definitely do it. Orthodontic relapse is so common as to be normal, even though nobody talks about it (all those orthodontists confirmed that, too) — and that is why.

    • Reply Brandy Vencel April 4, 2016 at 7:04 am

      You know, I’ve heard of myofascial therapy, but I hadn’t made the connection to this in my brain because I don’t know much about it beyond the name. That is so interesting! I’m trying to train all of my children to sleep on their backs now — the book has convinced me that part of what is going on is that they are putting pressure on all those bones at night while they are sleeping!

      I admire that you taught yourself how to do it! I will look into it! I had braces growing up, but my teeth have moved quite a bit. My friend who had an early version of what we are using now still has beautiful teeth — so I’m hoping that this is something that lasts much better, especially if I get them off of their faces at night!

      • Reply Dawn April 4, 2016 at 11:12 am

        I’ll second the recommendation for oral myofascial therapy. A great article about it can be found here: http://articles.mercola.com/sites/articles/archive/2013/04/07/orofacial-myofunctional-therapy.aspx
        Learning proper tongue placement is key, and gaining control over your tongue – which is a huge mass of muscle, really – is critical in creating the proper proprioceptive forces within your mouth to enlarge the palate and reduce the need for orthodontia due to overcrowding. Due to my wonderful in real life AO friend locally I was able to take my boys to visit a holistic dentist for a thorough evaluation – which lasted more than two hours! “Tongue therapy”/oral myofascial therapy was the first recommendation. I had never realized that my oldest son had such POOR TONGUE control!! He could not stick his tongue straight out when looking in a mirror. We have been slowly working on developing strength and control (I know – sounds funny – it’s his TONGUE, after all!) with great success. This contributes to his small overcrowded mouth and he is a definite candidate for what is called an A.L.F rather than braces. http://www.alforthodontics.com/ Sadly, this is definitely out of our budget at the moment so I am excited to learn about the Ortho-Tain as a possible affordable option. Thanks so much for this excellent post, Brandy.

  • Reply Carol April 4, 2016 at 2:51 am

    Brandy, have you read anything by Weston Price and his research on the causes of dental decay and physical degeneration? What you wrote reminded me of some of his ideas.

    • Reply Catie April 4, 2016 at 5:30 am

      My DH has read a lot by Price and the stories he tells (narrates?!) me are crazy of remote tribes whose teeth are very healthy!

      I can’t wait to read this book. 🙂

      • Reply Brandy Vencel April 4, 2016 at 7:06 am

        Catie, I have only read Nutrition and Physical Degeneration — what other books would your husband recommend? I really loved reading Price!

        • Reply Catie April 4, 2016 at 10:22 am

          Well, I just asked him and apparently, he’s only read the one! It seemed like a lot though b/c he read SO much of it to me and has checked it out from the library several times! LOL He also quoted him a lot from Nourishing Traditions (which DH read cover to cover!) I think b/c he was constantly reading me excerpts from both books for a while, I thought he had read more than one by Price! Whoopsy!

          • Brandy Vencel April 7, 2016 at 9:27 am

            Oh, too bad! I noticed Price has a few other books, but I wasn’t sure if they were worth reading — I know Nutrition and Physical Degeneration is his most famous one…

    • Reply Brandy Vencel April 4, 2016 at 6:57 am

      Yes! I’ve read his Nutrition and Physical Degeneration, which was just amazing. I read a friend’s copy, though, and I’ve recently been thinking I need to get my own because now it has been years since I’ve read it.

      This guy — Hal Huggins — definitely references Price and builds on his work, but he thinks that nutrition is only one component, and mainly deals with cavities not orthodontic development. He thinks that Native Americans, for instance, had beautiful teeth because they were raised on cradle boards. It’s fascinating.

      • Reply Tara April 4, 2016 at 1:38 pm

        Brandy, regarding nutritional impact, it seems I recall that Dr. Price found that maternal nutrition during pregnancy affected development of the child’s facial structure (but please correct me if I’m wrong). Did Huggins talk about that at all? If I remember correctly, Dr. Price found that when cultures began shifting from their native diet to a refined sugary diet, their dental structure changed (not only cavities). Do you recall anything about this?

        • Reply Brandy Vencel April 7, 2016 at 9:27 am

          Huggins did talk about nutrition, but he seems to think that sleeping position determines more than nutrition when it comes to orthodontic issues — but not with cavities. Cavities are, to him, nutritional defects.

          • Tara April 7, 2016 at 11:33 am

            That’s interesting. I was looking for a cheaper copy of Huggins’ book (over $30 on Amazon!) and landed on a site about Buteyko breathing, which is something I know a wee bit about but want to learn more. It pertains to breathing through the nose with the mouth shut, which encourages proper development. I’ve heard of adults overcoming sinus issues, sleep apnea, etc, by learning to breathe correctly with this method. And ideally, children can be taught to breathe correctly and avoid those issues altogether.

            It’s a lengthy article (interesting, but long), so I’ll paste this (also lengthy) quote here for ease in locating it.

            “Crooked teeth are a modern day phenomena. Even as late as the 1600s, crooked teeth while present amongst the wealthier class affected only a small portion of the population. Research has shown that this degeneration has become more marked within the past 400 years, and in European countries again appears to be linked with social progress and possibly a change of diet.1

            Over seventy years ago, dentist Dr Weston Price visited many primitive and isolated groups such as aborigines, Gaelic people, Swiss people, Eskimos, North American Indians and Maoris. His interest was in determining the effect of a change from their traditional to a more modernised European diet. His findings are published in a highly informative book entitled Nutrition and Physical Degeneration.2

            Dr Price noted that when the Gaelic people, living on the Hebrides off the coast of Scotland, changed from their traditional diet of small seafoods and oatmeal to a modernised diet of “angel food cake, white bread and many white flour commodities, marmalade, canned vegetables, sweetened fruit juices, jams, and confections,” first-generation children became mouth breathers and their immunity from the diseases of civilisation reduced dramatically.2

            One of his observations is as follows: The change in the two generations was illustrated by a little girl and her grandfather on the Isle of Skye. He was the product of the old regime, and about eighty years of age. He was typical of the stalwart product raised on the native foods.

            His granddaughter had pinched nostrils and narrowed face. Her dental arches were deformed and her teeth crowded. She was a mouth breather. She had the typical expression of the result of modernisation after the parents had adopted the modern foods of commerce, and abandoned the oatcake, oatmeal porridge and sea foods.2″ http://www.buteykochildren.com/mouth_breathing_and_facial_development.php

            I’m inclined to think that both nutrition and other forces (including sleeping position) are responsible. I’ve even seen an article from OraWellness about how propping our chins up on our hands while reading at the computer, for instance, can apply forces to our dental structures that cause undesirable changes, because the slow, continual force is similar to how braces cause changes. Sleeping position would be similar. But it also seems apparent from Dr. Price’s findings that diet came into play as well. It doesn’t seem likely that those cultures also suddenly started sleeping differently at the same time their diets changed. I do suspect that over time, we have come to sleep differently than our ancestors, because we sleep on springy beds and on our bellies, etc, versus sleeping with better posture on harder surfaces.

            I suddenly remembered Pottenger’s cats and did a quick search to see if he found structural changes. He did. Regarding one of the cats on the non-deficient diet (what would be considered “traditional” for cats, I guess): “Her kittens have broad faces and show excellent skeletal development.
            The changes in facial structure and onset of degenerative disease that Pottenger observed in cats on deficient diets paralleled the human degeneration that Dr. Price found in tribes and villages that had abandoned traditional foods.”
            http://ppnf.org/about/about-price-and-pottenger/dr-pottenger/pottengers-research/

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